Business trips and sleep

Often, doing business or staying in senior positions are associated with business trips to other cities and even countries. At first glance, travel is wonderful: a change of scenery, new experiences... But when the outcome of negotiations with foreign partners depends on the fate of your company, the charm of the notorious impressions somehow lost. And those who are going to fly especially far, expects another trouble: jet lag or jet lag.

Why are long-distance flights so hard to carry? Causes and consequences of jet lag

Many “events” taking place in the human body are subject to circadian rhythms – changes in physiological processes that occur at regular intervals. Circadian rhythms are also called the internal (biological) clock of the body. Most of them are daily, that is, their cycle lasts about 24 hours. One of the most striking examples of the daily rhythm is the cycle of “sleep-wakefulness“.

Full “turnover” of this cycle takes about a day. About 8 hours we sleep, the rest of the time – awake. Information about when and how much we should sleep, recorded in the genetic memory of man. That is why, no matter how much we try, we will not be able to learn to sleep for 2 hours a day, to all the rest of the time to Shine… what? Sure, work.

But genetic memory is not everything. Hours of sleep are at night, and wakefulness is associated with the day, so a person’s sleep is subject to external influences, namely the change of day and night. Thus, our sleep is controlled simultaneously by two mechanisms: internal processes and when the sun rises and sets.

Remote business trips are events that significantly and not the best way to affect the quality of sleep. A few hours of flight-and here the internal clock says one thing, and “external” show quite another. Because of the difference between the internal and geographical clock, a person has desynchronosis, which leads to the manifestations of jet lag.

Especially hard to carry flights to the East. They “shorten” the day, as in the place of arrival to Wake up and go to bed at an earlier time than at home. Travel to the West are somewhat easier: they lengthen the day, that is, going to sleep and waking up at a later time.

Jet lag can ruin a career

Politician and businessman Hiram Fong resigned and refused a seat in the Senate, as he could not transfer flights from his home in Hawaii to the office in Washington, which he was required to make about 20 times a year.

The symptoms of jet lag

In 1979 the American sportsman, an outstanding diver Greg Louganis squat in the competition has fallen with 10-metre platform into the pool, smashing her head. According to the doctors, the cause of the accident was the syndrome of jet lag, which led to inattention and defocusing the athlete.

The symptoms of this violation can affect anyone: how to force the future 4-time Olympic champion to stumble on the tower, and make the Manager, who went on a business trip, with shame to fail his mission… Here are a few signs of jet lag, which will allow you to “know the enemy in the face” and as soon as possible to take measures to restore the work of their biological clock.

  • daytime sleepiness;
  • difficulty falling asleep at night;
  • reduced concentration, inattention, memory impairment;
  • slow reaction;
  • digestive problems: abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation.

Jet lag occurs at the rapid intersection of 2 or more time zones. The farther the flight, the more pronounced the violations.

How to quickly adapt to the time difference? 10 rules for each stage of the journey.

To reduce and quickly overcome the symptoms of jet lag, you should follow a number of recommendations that prevent desynchronosis and help to quickly restore the course of the biological clock. To start this should be done before the trip.

Before the flight

1. For 4-5 days start preparing for life in a different time zone. Get up every day an hour later or earlier depending on whether you are flying East or West. Similarly, reschedule dinner and bedtime.

2. 2-3 days before the flight, refuse to take alcohol, it enhances the manifestations of jet lag.

3. Plan to arrive at your destination a few days before an important meeting, if you have to. This will give the body the opportunity to adapt to a new place and allow you to feel better when it is necessary.

4. Book a flight to arrive in the evening local time.

5. Choose a comfortable place on the plane.

6. On the last night before departure, take a tablet of Melaxen. It is a health-safe adaptogen that will reduce the effects of jet lag.

7. Before the flight, a good sleep, it will reduce the effect of the time difference. Avoid departure early in the morning, otherwise you will not get enough sleep.

8. Going on the road, dress in loose comfortable clothes and shoes. Comfort during the trip is an important condition for well-being.

9. Take with you things that you may need in flight: earplugs, sleeping pills, eye mask, book, etc.

10. Arrive at the airport with a margin of time. This will avoid stress, against which the change of time zones will be perceived more sharply.

During the trip

1. Sitting on the plane, immediately move your watch to the time that will be at the point of arrival.

2. During the flight, drink more, it avoids dehydration, which develops faster at low pressure. Dehydration, in turn, disrupts the transport of oxygen to the blood and increases the resulting desynchronosis.

3. Do not drink alcohol: alcohol increases dehydration and causes drowsiness.

Two SIPS of alcohol on the plane in its negative effects on the body are three SIPS of alcohol on the ground.

4. See what you eat on the plane: eating heavy food is undesirable, it increases the risk of digestive problems.

5. Move more, walk around the cabin.

6. If you can not walk around the cabin, you can perform a few light exercises without getting up (see figure below).

7. Remove contact lenses so as not to irritate the eyes, put on headphones to hear less noise. The absence of stimuli is necessary for the successful “translation” of the internal clock.

8. If the plane is cool, do not hesitate to ask for a blanket: it is very important to maintain a constant body temperature.

9. If the place where you arrive, at the time of arrival will be the second half of the night or early morning, try to take a NAP on the plane. Use earplugs, eye mask, you can take a short-acting sleeping pill. Just before arrival, you can drink coffee to cheer up, but the rest of the time stimulants should be avoided.

10. If the destination day or evening, refrain from sleeping on the plane. Better read a book or watch a movie.

Gymnastics on the plane

1. Inhale deeply through the nose and exhale through the mouth – 6 times.

2. Raise your right hand up, and pulled her whole body (without leaving your chair) – 6 times. Repeat the same with the left hand.

3. Turn your head from side to side – 6 times.

4. To make the tilting the head back and forth 6 times.

5. Make rotation in the shoulder joints-10 times.

6. Rotation in the wrist joints-10 times.

7. In the ankle joints-10 times.

8. Off the floor a foot, raise the knee of your right leg as high as possible 10 times. Repeat the same with the spruce foot.

9. To join the palms behind the back, sit 2 minutes.

10. Low to get up from the seat to sit back down 10 times.

11. Pull and relax the stomach-10 times.

12. You can relax-gymnastics is over!

At the point of arrival

1. Immediately begin to live local time: stay awake during the day and sleep at night.

2. At first, eat light food that will not lead to indigestion. Eat more food rich in carbohydrates, it gives a lot of energy and does not overload the gastrointestinal tract.

3. After waking up, especially if you were flying to the East, where the morning comes earlier than your inner clock, immediately open the curtains or go out in the sun.

4. In the hotel, rent a room with Windows facing East or South, so that the sun has always been your “assistant” in adapting to the new time.

5. In the morning, do exercise, it helps to restore the biorhythms.

6. Daily use the alarm clock, which will remind you of the need to Wake up and the time of “lights out”. This is especially important when there is a large time difference when it is easy to “get lost”.

7. Wear sunglasses or go to a room with limited light 2 hours before bedtime.

8. Take 1 tablet of Melaxen 30 minutes before bedtime for 3-5 days after arrival.

9. Do not eat at night local time.

10. When resting, use the sign “do not disturb”: to quickly recover, you have to sleep fully and without waking up because of an accidental knock on the door or the visit of the maid.

We work correctly, we have a rest correctly

The working day of a businessman or a top Manager is filled not only with the implementation of pre-planned plans, but also with the chaos of important meetings, responsible decisions, urgent telephone conversations and unexpected trips. In addition, it is often and unpredictably stretched, sometimes ending well past midnight. Is it possible to sleep well in such conditions?

Do not let work interfere with sleep

Some work-related factors have a negative impact on the quality of your holiday. It is necessary to influence them – and you will immediately sleep better.

“Endless” working day

Irregular schedule-the main attribute of your work. Wherever you are, head you are constantly at work. With thoughts of it you go “to the machine” and with them come home, where it is necessary to rest. Continuing to think about your problems until late at night, you drag work and bed, thus not allowing yourself to sleep.

What to do. If you want to sleep well, you need to make sure that your bed is not associated with work and sleep. For this reason, it is necessary to abandon the habit of viewing e-mail or make important calls to sleep coming. The brain needs at least an hour of rest to prepare for sleep.

Moreover: forbid yourself to think about “working” topics when you are in bed. Okay! The working day is over, let yourself finally relax! Let us recall the folk wisdom: “To take care with you to bed means to sleep with a bale on your back” … how Can you say that this is not true? There is one quite effective way to get rid of unpleasant thoughts. Take a piece of paper, write down everything that bothers you before you go to sleep, and give yourself the floor to go back to solving problems tomorrow.

Stress, emotional stress

We will return to this topic later, but now it is impossible not to mention it, especially since stress and tension are your faithful companions in life. The greater the tests fall on your psyche during the day, the harder it is for you to fall asleep at night…

Not experience…

Frequent stress can lead to health problems. Of all organ systems, the cardiovascular and endocrine systems suffer from stress most often.

What to do. In this case, the advice partially echoes the recommendations given above: try to move away from yourself all thoughts about work when you have 2-3 hours to sleep. During this time you just have time to calm down and tune in to rest. In addition, pay attention to relaxing procedures before going to bed (aromatherapy, massage), read a good book, talk to the household, take a warm bath. If sleep still does not succeed, can take a light sedative. Just do not drink sedatives systematically, many of them are addictive and addictive, “get out” of which will be impossible without the help of a specialist.

The lack of physical fatigue

“Fatigue is the best pillow,” Benjamin Franklin said. Are you tired? Certainly. A particularly difficult working day can devastate you emotionally. But for a good sleep, physical fatigue is important, which many do not have…

If the Cheetah does not run a few tens of kilometers a day, he will not sleep, and if you do not allow him to run for a long time, he will die. The need for physical activity in humans is expressed at times less, but it is also present, and this should be borne in mind.

What to do. You are well able to find free time for important things. Good sleep is also very important, so if you want, you will certainly be able to allocate time for exercise. Ideally, it is desirable to do 3-4 times a week for 45-60 minutes. At the same time, the load should be aerobic: running, Bicycle Ergometer, swimming, active game sports. Stop classes should be at least 2-3 hours before bedtime.

What to do. In this case, the advice partially echoes the recommendations given above: try to move away from yourself all thoughts about work when you have 2-3 hours to sleep. During this time you just have time to calm down and tune in to rest. In addition, pay attention to relaxing procedures before going to bed (aromatherapy, massage), read a good book, talk to the household, take a warm bath. If sleep still does not succeed, can take a light sedative. Just do not drink sedatives systematically, many of them are addictive and addictive, “get out” of which will be impossible without the help of a specialist.

The lack of physical fatigue

“Fatigue is the best pillow,” Benjamin Franklin said. Are you tired? Certainly. A particularly difficult working day can devastate you emotionally. But for a good sleep, physical fatigue is important, which many do not have…

If the Cheetah does not run a few tens of kilometers a day, he will not sleep, and if you do not allow him to run for a long time, he will die. The need for physical activity in humans is expressed at times less, but it is also present, and this should be borne in mind.

What to do. You are well able to find free time for important things. Good sleep is also very important, so if you want, you will certainly be able to allocate time for exercise. Ideally, it is desirable to do 3-4 times a week for 45-60 minutes. At the same time, the load should be aerobic: running, Bicycle Ergometer, swimming, active game sports. Stop classes should be at least 2-3 hours before bedtime.

How to improve sleep. Recommendations for managers and businessmen

Sports training helps to improve sleep. The main thing-do not allow excessive physical activity just before the “lights out“.

Sometimes patients complain that in the afternoon they have absolutely no time for the gym. In this situation, you can play sports in the morning. It’s probably not the best option in terms of physiology, but without a doubt it’s better than doing nothing at all.

Poor diet

You are so busy during the day that really do not have time to eat, but before going to bed compensate for it with a vengeance. Very in vain: overeating in the evening creates heaviness in the stomach, causes belching and heartburn, and this prevents sleep.

What to do. Try to have Breakfast, lunch and dinner every day. Eat more foods that contain tryptophan: it is a material for the formation of serotonin, melatonin and other biologically active substances necessary for healthy sleep. Tryptophan is found in milk, cheese, cottage cheese, nuts, oatmeal, bananas.

Eat dinner 4 hours before bedtime; try not to make the last meal too heavy. Hungry to go to bed, too, is not necessary. And it’s not just the discomfort and possible nightmares involving food. The fact is that in certain periods of rest (namely during REM sleep, when a person sees dreams) there is an increase in the secretion of gastric juice. According to the figurative expression of neurologist and somnologist M. vane, ” food is digested to the accompaniment of dreams.” If there is nothing to digest, it can cause gastritis and peptic ulcer.

Drinking coffee and stimulants

You are constantly excited and at the same time feel tired all the time. With such a busy lifestyle this can not be avoided, so you have to take measures to recover. Many find a way out in the use of large amounts of coffee, Coca-Cola, energy drinks and other stimulants (such as chocolate). This has the most destructive effect on sleep.

One public figure came to me with complaints about problems with falling asleep. At the same time, he drank 20 cups of brewed coffee and smoked 60 cigarettes a day. A lot of people would just die from that dose of caffeine and nicotine, and the patient would only fall asleep badly. But he flatly refused to fight bad habits and demanded a pill that would improve his sleep…

What to do. It is necessary to limit the use of these products and drinks by the number and time. They are allowed only in the morning and only in moderation. If you want an addiction to coffee the way so you can sleep, read the following list of rules with which your habit will be safe for the rest.

Coffee or tea?

Some believe that tea does not disturb sleep, unlike coffee. This is not so: strong tea also has a lot of caffeine. And especially” dangerous ” is green tea, which is mistakenly considered the most harmless of all possible tonic drinks. It contains even more caffeine than coffee beans. At the same time, when gout coffee is useful and reduces the content of uric acid in the blood.

7 “Golden rules” of drinking coffee without compromising sleep

1. Drink coffee in the morning or in the afternoon, but not later than 6-8 hours before bedtime (about 14.00).

2. A maximum of 300 mg of caffeine is allowed per day, which is roughly equivalent to three cups of coffee.

3. Train yourself to drink coffee with milk or cream. Caffeine is partially bound to milk fats, so it does not affect the nervous system so much.

4. Robusta contains more caffeine than Arabica, so it is better to choose the second option.

5. During heat treatment, the content of caffeine in the beans increases, so you should choose coffee weak and medium roast.

6. Natural coffee has much less effect on sleep than instant coffee. In the latter, manufacturers often add additional portions of caffeine to meet the criteria stated in the advertising of “invigorating drink”.

7. If you like instant coffee, choose only sublimated (not granulated and not powder), and only elite varieties. This is a guarantee that there will be nothing “superfluous”in it.

The right consumption of coffee is not harmful to dream. However, the drink can be harmful to health. In case of arrhythmias or hypertension, it should be abandoned.

Lack of sleep provokes the development of hypertension and heart disease, increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

  • * In case of insufficient sleep, the secretion of special peptides responsible for the regulation of appetite is disturbed. This increases hunger and leads to obesity.
  • * Some studies have linked sleep deprivation to the development of malignant tumors.
  • * With a short duration of sleep and frequent awakenings, testosterone production is disturbed, so that the lack and some sleep diseases provoke the development of impotence.
  • * In people who sleep less than 7-8 hours a day, impaired glucose metabolism in the body, which is a risk factor for diabetes.
  • * Poor sleep accelerates aging.
  • * Those who sleep 5 or less hours a day have a 15% higher risk of death from all causes than people who allow themselves enough time to rest.
  • * Even one night without sleep causes daytime sleepiness, increased irritability, decreased attention and concentration. If after a sleepless night you have some important business, for example, an important meeting, you probably will not be able to achieve your goals.
  • * Lack of sleep disrupts the metabolism of mediators in the brain, including serotonin. This substance controls the mood, gives peace of mind and makes us perceive the world as it is. Lack of serotonin in sleep deprivation leads to perception of the surrounding reality in dark tones and can even lead to depression.
  • * Sleep deprivation increases the risk of chronic fatigue syndrome and occupational burnout, which are already very characteristic of people living in a state of constant stress (more – in Chapter 4).

The result of all this is poor health, dependence on doctors and medicines, not developing relationships with customers, partners and subordinates, wrong tactics of doing business, professional failures and, perhaps, the collapse of your own business, to which you have given several years of your life. But enough to scare you – move on to the positive.

That gives you a healthy sleep

The benefit of a healthy sleep can be considered is that it will help to avoid the consequences mentioned above, and will allow you to stay healthy, cheerful and balanced person. In addition, quality rest will give you some nice "bonuses".

* Full sleep helps to look good, as it prevents the increased release of stress hormones that cause microcirculation and the formation of collagen in the skin.

* During slow sleep, the hormone somatotropin is released, which helps to restore tissues, strengthen bones, increase muscle mass. Sleep instead of the gym – how’s that?

* Full sleep helps to consolidate memory, especially improving long-term memory. This is very important for a person who has to absorb a large amount of information and remember everything in the world.

* During sleep, the brain is “residual analysis” of the information received during the day, in other words, it continues to work when you sleep. Sometimes it is able to present surprises in the form of spontaneous decisions that came in the form of insight over a Cup of morning cappuccino. Mendeleev in a dream made up their table, von stradonitz discovered the benzene ring… Maybe you have unanswerable questions, the answers to which your brain already knows, but can not you tell?

As Miguel de Cervantes wrote in don Quixote, ” God Bless him who invented sleep!”. Normal rest is health, vivacity and high working capacity. Let’s hope you at least a little imbued with this idea, and now will not be so hard to take away the precious hours of sleep. However, some people, for years exhausting themselves with work, there is a problem: they simply can not start to sleep anymore, because they have already got problems with sleep, not giving them a rest. Why did this happen and what should be done? The answers you will find in the following chapters.

How to improve sleep. Part 1

Introduction

Voltage. Responsibility. Deficiency of time. You have a lot to do. You can rely solely on their strength. People who are around, waiting for your words, actions, decisions. It all depends on you…

Who are you in this case? Superman? Not really: you are “just” a Manager or an owner of your own business.

Every day you must be the embodiment of self-confidence and common sense. Every day you have to be in perfect shape. Looking at you, any employee should think:with this person we will not disappear!” The slightest relief and can hurt your business, reputation, employees.

I recently read one expression that I repeat from memory:A good leader is one who can make effective decisions as long as possible in a state of chronic stress.

Unfortunately, all this is very difficult. Many aspects of such work “break” people and for several years or even months significantly undermine their physical and mental health.

What to do to always stay “in the saddle”? Regularly undergo a course of relaxing treatments in the best spas in Europe? Have a personal doctor who will examine you thoroughly every week? To have a dozen consultants who can shift responsibility for their business? Or maybe just to go “on rest”?

Maybe all this makes sense, but the most important thing that you need is to get a full rest every day, which will allow the body and mind to recover from the hard everyday life. The pressure of problems is not proved to have unbearable burden, you must have a good sleep.

Here’s another interesting expression:Is there one safe pill that lengthens life, enhances vitality, increases concentration and improves mood? There is no such pill, but there is a simple and effective way to achieve all this – a GOOD NIGHT’s SLEEP!»

Full sleep is the most important aspect of maintaining health and improving personal effectiveness. However, problems, experiences and banal lack of time do not allow you to sleep and get up every day cheerful and full of energy. About how to change this, we’ll talk in this book.

Chapter 1. Little sleep – a lot of work, or lack of sleep in the lives of businessmen and managers

Among his colleagues, you are unlikely to meet a lot of people who go to bed at 22:00, 8 hours spent in bed, and then get up, go for a run, drink carrot juice and only then slowly and without fuss taken for their business. To observe a perfectly healthy lifestyle prevents you from an abundance of things that require constant participation and force you to spend a minimum of time on yourself.

Too much sleep-ashamed?

This is what most representatives of the business community, for whom prolonged sleep is inextricably linked with laziness, unworthy of an active, active, hard-working person, which most of them are. Even Napoleon-though not a businessman, but still a bright historical figure – spoke very negatively about the fans to lie in bed. “A man should sleep 4 hours, a woman-5 hours, and more sleep only the sick and fools»…

The media love to publish information about the rich and successful; and, if they believe, few of today’s entrepreneurs spend more than 5-6 hours a day in a state of sleep. Some even willingly speak about it.

For example, billionaire Donald trump claims that he sleeps no more than 3 hours, and considers this one of the secrets of his success: allegedly, this approach to rest saved him a lot of time that he spent on business development.

Turn off the lights!

Before the invention of the light bulb, people were awake and slept according to the length of the daylight. Now we are available not only around the clock lighting, but also the Internet, television, etc.Because of all this over the past 200 years, the duration of human sleep has decreased by about 20%, and among employed people-up to 50%.

The appearance of a successful businessman in the modern world does not fit with the need for rest

In General, many people who have their own business or hold high positions, adhere to a stable, categorical and even aggressive position regarding the duration of sleep: it is necessary to severely limit yourself to rest, the only way to cope with the ever-increasing volume of work and achieve something.

In fairness it should be noted that a long sleep is really not good for health. Scientists have concluded that sleep more than 9 hours a day reduces the mental capacity of a person, causes headaches and increases the risk of endocrine diseases.

Yes, long sleep – it is hopeless, ugly and harmful. However, among the busy people, some do not give themselves even the minimum necessary time to sleep. And its chronic deficiency is not only a huge damage to health, but also a threat to working capacity.

You sleep less than you can imagine.

A study At the University of Chicago found that people sleep less than they think. Those who sleep 7 to 8 hours, in fact, spend in sleep less than 6 hours. And how much do you sleep?

A good night’s sleep: essential for health that are important to your business

“Don’t lay low if you can’t make money in bed!”- said the famous American actor and comedian George burns. With more or less hunting you follow this advice, not allowing yourself to sleep for weeks and months. What can this lead to? Working in your environment, you are used to think about things and phenomena from the perspective of their potential damage or benefit. So let’s look at what lack of sleep can hurt you and why give yourself enough rest – it’s profitable.

The dangers of sleep deprivation. Don’t deprive yourself of sleep!

Can you focus on your work if you have constant pain, if you need to take pills for hours or go to the hospital regularly? Do you manage to maintain high productivity when your days pass in the fog of incredible fatigue? If not, we advise you to change your attitude to sleep, because its lack is not good for you.

The French are the laziest nation in the world

According to a study conducted by the Paris Organization for economic cooperation and development, the French spend about 9 hours a day in a dream and eat about 2 hours. At the same time, the development of business in France does not lag behind the European average. Maybe success does not depend only on the reduction of sleep time?

TO BE CONTINUED...

Is it True Women Suffer from Sleep Disorders More often than Men

ABOUT PROBLEMS WITH SLEEP, TALKING MORE AND MORE OFTEN: people today don't get enough sleep and, fully aware of the importance of night rest, looking for new technological ways to improve its quality, from "smart" beds with sleep trackers to special sprays for bedding. But there are problems that are difficult to solve with the help of earplugs or mobile application. According to the National sleep organization of the United States (Yes, there is such — The National Sleep Foundation), women are much more likely than men to experience insomnia and other sleep disorders. Scientists have discovered and are actively exploring new factors that may be the cause of this disappointing statistics.

There are grounds to believe, that all deal in difference circadian rhythms, and they, in turn, depend on level various hormones, in including female genital. To understand what we are talking about, it is necessary to take into account that the circadian rhythm is not just an “internal clock” that determines the time of sleep and awakening. Many other physiological processes, such as the regulation of body temperature, take place within this cycle, which is about twenty-four hours and is also known as the biological day. Changes in sleep and Wake, fluctuations in body temperature and other vital functions are triggered by environmental signals — from sunlight to atmospheric pressure — and a number of chemical elements in the body.

To find out how different people respond to these signals during the day, last year American scientists decided to study the sleep mechanisms of fifteen men and eleven women (eight of them participated in the experiment during two different phases of the menstrual cycle). The subjects were offered to fall asleep in carefully controlled conditions for three days. In addition, during the study, members of the group were shown daytime sleep. Scientists have regularly measured the body temperature of the subjects, the quality of their sleep, levels of melatonin — the hormone responsible for circadian rhythms, as well as how quickly the members of the group fell asleep and how cheerful they were after waking up. The results of the study were unexpected: although male and female organisms during the day experienced the same physiological processes due to circadian rhythms, in women these cycles were faster. The women went to sleep and awoke earlier. “During the day, women went to bed on average two hours earlier than men,”explains Dr. Diana Boyvin, who conducted the study. – As if the system of daily rhythms in women is one time zone to the East than in men“.

Of course, to confirm the results will require a much wider sample. However, the data of this study is consistent with the earlier, which showed that the biological day is shorter than twenty-four hours among women is more common. In addition, they have more cases of physical exhaustion after being forced to stay awake at night. The fact that women often Wake up before men, scientists explain the changes in hormone levels and body temperature within the daily rhythm. The difference in their duration, as well as physiological fluctuations within the cycle, are considered quite normal and most of us do not cause any complications. At the same time, such scientific observations bring us closer to understanding why failures in the “biological clock” and sleep disorders are more typical for women.

Daily rhythms affect not only sleep, but also such processes as, for example, the reaction of the body to different types of medicines…

Although no direct link between the participants’ menstrual cycles and their sleep quality was found in these trials, another small study by the same laboratory found that during the luteal phase of the cycle, that is, between ovulation and menstruation, the total amount of sleep in the fast phase may decrease. Now scientists believe that the phenomenon may be associated with the work of the suprachiasmatic nucleus — a small cluster of neurons in the brain that controls circadian rhythms. This zone regulates the level of production of hormones that determine the mechanisms of sleep and awakening, in particular melatonin. It was found that this nucleus also contains estrogen receptors, and it is known to regulate the menstrual cycle and all related changes in the body, including body temperature — an important factor in the “sleep — awakening“.

On the basis of these observations, the researchers conclude about another type of relationship between the level of hormones and our “internal clock“. Dr. Boyvin quite boldly States:in fact, the brain area responsible for the circadian rhythm and mechanisms of sleep, there is gender.Another doctor-somnologist Diane Augelli in an interview with New York Magazine is more cautious in expressions, but also confirms the role of sex hormones in the formation of daily rhythms:Estrogen works as a neurotransmitter in different directions, some of which affect the quality of sleep, and progesterone can show sleep-inducing properties.” This factor, according to doctors, is of fundamental importance, because the daily rhythms affect not only sleep, but also such processes as, for example, the reaction of the body to different types of medicines.

There are more obvious and studied in detail factors that form the statistics of sleep disorders. In women, it is, for example, pregnancy and menopause. In addition to changes in the level of estrogen and progesterone, during pregnancy, there may be General physical discomfort, as well as characteristic symptoms — from burning in the chest to restless leg syndrome, which affects the quality of sleep. Insomnia and sleep apnea (temporary stopping or weakening of breathing) are frequent companions of pregnancy and menopause. During the latter, as is known, there are regular bouts of heat and excessive sweating, including at night. In addition, a number of studies prove that women are more acute than men endure anxiety and harder to perceive stress in professional and personal life — the effect of the “stress hormone” cortisol on sleep disorders says a lot of research.

In any case, scientists have only recently come close to understanding how complex sleep mechanisms actually work and in which cases sex differences really matter. In existing studies, proving the relationship between the level of sex hormones and the duration of daily rhythms, an insufficient number of subjects are involved. In addition, participants in such experiments, as a rule, or completely healthy, or all of one suffer from sleep disorders, so that the proper distribution of data is difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, researchers now confidently associate the difference in daily rhythms and the level of sex hormones with the fact that women sleep disorders are more pronounced — in particular, they sleep worse closer to the morning. How exactly there is such a pattern, yet to be known.

5 Functions that the Brain Performs During Sleep

The need to sleep every day for a third of the day should be something justified, is not it? Scientists have been researching sleep for decades and can now explain some of the processes that happen to us in our sleep.

1. Make a Decision

– A study published in the journal Current Biology suggests that the brain is more than capable of making decisions during sleep. Participants in this study were asked to sort the words into two categories by pressing the button, and during the tests were allowed to sleep. However, the experiment continued in a dream – the brain of the participants was able to make decisions even after the body went to sleep.

2. Sorts of Memories

– In a dream, the brain processes new memories, checks connections with old ones, and sorts memory so that a person does not forget the right moments. According to Dr. Matthew Walker from the University of California, if a person is engaged in piano after a healthy sleep and sleeps another eight hours the next night, then the lesson is reproduced by him by 20-30% better than when checking knowledge immediately after the end of classes.

3. Creates Associations

– During sleep, the brain builds associative connections between seemingly unrelated things. This can lead to unusual ideas or an in-depth understanding of the world. Therefore, sometimes appearing in the head unexpectedly original ideas are not so spontaneous.

4. Gets Rid of Toxins

– A series of studies shows that in sleep, the brain of mice is cleared of neurodegenerative cells and toxins, an increase in the concentration of which can lead to the development of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

5. Trained in Physical Labor

– During the REM sleep phase, new information about the body’s motor function is transferred from the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for motor skills, to the temporal lobe. This helps us to “comprehend” and perform tasks related to physical activity more effectively.

How do presidents get so little sleep

High-ranking politicians often have to settle for just a few hours of sleep a day. How do they manage to keep working with such a small amount of rest?

For participation in the election campaign candidates for the presidency of the country pay a dream.

According to the current us President Barack Obama, he lays in the schedule of six hours of sleep a day, but so much sleep he can not always.

One of his predecessors, bill Clinton, said that he sleeps 5-6 hours a day.

How much should a senior Executive, such as a President, sleep to be able to work normally?

This issue is of particular importance when the presidential candidates ‘ election race reaches its climax.

Does the amount of sleep affect their performance? How do they manage to exist in such a busy schedule? And is it possible to write off some mistakes and mistakes for lack of sleep?

As a neurologist who has studied the problem of sleep for many years, I know that sleep affects performance and health.

Some people can get 4-5 hours of sleep a day, but most of us need much more.

Scientists have yet to develop a “unified generalized theory” of evolutionary meaning and goals of sleep, but studies have already revealed a number of important functions for the human body and brain.

Following a meta-analysis of scientific medical literature last year, The American Academy of sleep medicine and the sleep research Society issued a joint statement according to which adults are recommended to sleep at least seven hours a day to maintain health.

This recommendation is based on a systematic review of previous studies. The statement also says that regular sleep of less than six hours a day is “insufficient to maintain health.”

Sleep is cyclical and includes phases of fast and slow sleep. During the fast phase, we have the brightest dreams. The slow-wave sleep is divided into light sleep (stages N1 and N2) and deep slow-wave sleep (stage N3).

It is believed that slow wave sleep is especially important for physical recovery and health promotion, as it contributes to the preservation and restoration of cells.

Both fast and slow sleep are necessary for good memory performance. The REM sleep phase is necessary for memory consolidation, especially procedural and spatial.

During slow-wave sleep there is information processing and consolidation primarily declarative memory of facts and events.

Brain cells (neurons) interact with each other through synapses – contacts connecting neurons by transmitting signals through chemicals, neurotransmitters. Slow wave sleep is needed to clear and simplify these compounds and bonds.

Thanks to this cleaning, the process of memory consolidation retains strong links and eliminates weak ones.

In the past few years, evidence has begun to emerge that sleep is important to combat age-related memory impairment and the gradual development of mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

As shown by animal studies, sleep promotes the release of the brain from the waste of his life, such as amyloid.

As animal studies have shown, sleep helps to release the brain from waste, such as amyloidosis

The accumulation of amyloid plaques is considered one of the classic signs of Alzheimer’s disease. This newly discovered sleep function – brainwashing to eliminate toxic products – is of great interest to scientists.

Countless studies have demonstrated a deterioration in cognitive brain activity after sleep deprivation on a number of parameters – including attention, emotion regulation, learning, memory, and “management functions.”

In the framework of these studies, management functions are understood as the ability to work in multitasking and to build complex sequences.

In addition, this category may include the ability to self-regulate and control their behavior and speech in order to avoid inappropriate situations.

Most of these functions suffer from lack of sleep cognitive indicators of attention; there is also a moderate impact on comprehensive attention and memory.

Fortunately, judging by the results of research, the ability to simple reasoning from lack of sleep does not change.

At the same time, the area of the brain that is most actively involved in the implementation of administrative functions is affected by the most common sleep disorder – obstructive apnea.

Through a deeper understanding of the importance of sleep and its role in cognitive activities have changed job descriptions, restrictions on the number of hours of work and guidance on the monitoring and prevention of errors related to lack of sleep, for different categories of professionals, including doctors and pilots.

There is evidence that lack of sleep has a number of consequences for the human body, ranging from chronic sleep disorders, weight gain, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and depression and ending with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke and even death.

There is also a relationship between lack of sleep and decreased immunity and increased sensitivity to pain.

The American sleep Foundation periodically conducts a survey “Sleep in America”. According to this survey, 40% of respondents sleep less than seven hours a day.

The relationship between lack of sleep and decreased immunity and increased sensitivity to pain was established

Under the initiative of the Ministry of health and social services “Healthy people 2020“, aimed at strengthening the health of the population, the goal was “to increase the proportion of adults who receive sufficient sleep.”

A number of studies have also been carried out showing an increase in the number of errors and accidents caused by lack of sleep.

Given the relationship between sleep and efficiency, scientists have experimentally proved that increasing the number of hours of night sleep allows professional athletes to improve their results.

Many professional sports teams now resort to the services of experts in the field of sleep to maximize the achievements of their athletes.

How to deal with the effects of sleep deficit

Caffeine. During wakefulness in the frontal lobes of the brain accumulates a substance called adenosine, which is associated with sleep cravings. Under the influence of caffeine, these receptors are blocked, the accumulation of adenosine temporarily stops, and you want to sleep less.

Daytime sleep. There is evidence that a short day’s sleep (ideally no more than 20 minutes) can help to improve vitality and efficiency.

Some managers have actively taken advantage of this opportunity. Having a place at work where you can get a few minutes of rest between meetings without interference can be very useful.

According to the National sleep Foundation, among those who try to sleep regularly after lunch were several presidents, including John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, and George W. Bush.

Office equipment. In our society, there is an increased tendency to use smartphones and other electronic devices to organize your schedule, reminders of important events and access to the necessary information. Once these devices were even called “spare brains”.

Senior managers usually have a staff that helps to solve countless issues and interact with many people to work in a regular mode, as well as to deal with emerging problems and crises.

This points to the need to form a sufficiently large apparatus of qualified employees capable of becoming a kind of “organizational brain” (provided that at least some of them manage to get enough sleep).

Theoretically, the President can cope with the lack of sleep through a combination of these strategies. Perhaps the candidates for this post use the same methods.

Cristiano Ronaldo – the infernal charged with the performance of the robot. Take any detail and it will definitely surprise you. A separate consultant on the run, a perfectly clean menu, 6-hour reconstructive procedures after trauma. Have you heard anything about contrasting baths? It turns out that if real Madrid play Santiago Bernabeu, Cristiano immediately collects the bag and rushes home to the area of La Finca, where he has already prepared two baths. The first – with hot water, the second-with cold. In burning, he spends about 5 minutes in the cold and freeze 3 more. And so three laps – all for the full recovery of the body.

But now it turns out that Ronaldo is a special even sleep.

British sleep researcher Nick Littlehales in an interview with the Independent said that for three years working on the regime of Cristiano. The Portuguese almost does not sleep for 8 hours in a row, and falls into bed 2 times a day. Over the methodology of Littlehales sleep Ronaldo is divided into 5 cycles with a duration of half an hour. For example, 4,5 or 6 hours Cristiano sleeps at night, and another 3 or 1,5 – sprinkles during the day.

The second important condition-Ronaldo always sleeps in the fetal position and fresh linens (apparently, in his house has a huge Laundry). The mattress should be very thin: “10 centimeters of material is enough for a Person. You’ve noticed that when you go camping and sleep on a thinner mattress, you feel just fine?“says Littlehales.

Nick met Ronaldo in 2014, when he worked at real Madrid at the invitation of Carlo Ancelotti. Littlehales studied the room 81 at the base and talked to the staff of real Madrid about the sleep environment, which affects the sleep of the players: temperature and air quality, lighting, the rigidity of the mattress, and the density of the blankets. During another conversation next turned to Cristiano. “He trained all day, just tired, and it would be logical if he ran immediately into the shower. But no, he noticed us and came up – only to ask what we are discussing,” recalled Littlehales.

Ronaldo was interested in a detailed analysis of the theory of sleep, between them struck up a long conversation. “Everyone who has worked with Ronaldo knows that if he hears the conversation in the corner of the room, then immediately come and ask what it is. He is interested in everything, he tries to absorb new knowledge and invest in himself. He is not interested in General diets, he does not copy other people’s plans and conclusions. He is only interested in what will work for him.

What is this dream guru?

Littlehales dreamed of becoming a golfer and even professionally engaged in this sport in 1978-1983. There was little success, and to earn more or less decent money, had to reorient: by the nineties Nick became Director of sales and marketing in the company Slumberland, which produces beds and linens. Studying the specifics of the market, Littlehales became more and more immersed in science and once realized that he could use new knowledge in sports.

In 1998, Littlehales wrote to sir Alex Ferguson for good luck. It is not to be begged to work, but rather just interested in what you are doing in the “Manchester United” sleeping main stars. Ferguson has carefully studied this appeal, interviewed all the assistants and understand that sleep is not monitored. Nick was called for an interview.

Ferguson is a progressive Manager, anyone else would probably not read my letter and just throw it in a bucket. But we started cooperating. It all started with Gary Pallister: he was coming back from the away games on a special bed in the club bus, because his back was in a terrible state, he could not even sit still for a long time. It turned out that the reason was that Gary slept at home in a completely wrong position. We found the optimal position, and in the end he did not need to lie on the table of the physiotherapist. Seeing this, the MU physiotherapists began to wonder how other players sleep, even went home to young players.

Since then, Ryan Giggs remains Littlehales ‘ loyal customer. Also, John Terry, Didier Drogba and the winner of the Tour de France Bradley Wiggins worked individually with Nick, in full squad – Manchester United (almost 15 years), Arsenal, Manchester city, Liverpool, England, Southampton, Blackburn and Formula 1 team Red Bull.

For each member of the UK Cycling team Littlehales before the Olympics-2012 developed individual mattresses-they were deployed on the floor, and the standard beds from the Olympic village were intact. Even more radical he entered the football Euro 2004 with the England team: the usual beds were taken to the warehouse and replaced them with full sets for sleep, which also lay on the floor. “The hotel staff thought the English were crazy. And many people in football still think that because of sleep too much fuss, ” nick noticed.

Carelessness top clubs Littlehales stabs to the heart: “the Managers pay players millions of pounds and not think about sleep, which also affects energy and concentration, and to recover, and at the speed of thought. Very often in the football player’s bedroom this picture: in front of the bed there is a TV, next to the laptop and tablet, in the room there are lights. Very few people understand that in the first hour of sleep all this light is like a laser for the pineal body, which produces melatonin, a regulator of daily rhythms. As a result of exposure to such light, there is no proper balance between sleep hormones and waking hormones. This prevents you to sleep soundly, and then responds with a feeling of fatigue during the day. If you do it right, you will be cheerful.”

But why is Ronaldo sleeping so strangely?

First, Littlehales sure that the usual statement “you have to sleep at night for at least 8 hours” – just a myth, the body does not require such a distribution of sleep. “Historically, people slept in several phases-in short periods in the evening, at night, in the afternoon. To sleep in one solid block, we began only with the invention of the light bulb. You can easily make sure the natural order of things, if you follow the lives of different tribes.

Secondly, Littlehales argues that the main thing in a dream – is the accounting of circadian rhythms (differences in the intensity of biological processes day and night – because of the light and temperature), and not a fixed number of hours. Activity increases body temperature and contributes to the production of various hormones. And to normalize all chemical processes, it is necessary to adhere to sleep cycles.

According to Littlehales, in one hour and a half cycle, the human body goes through various stages of sleep (particularly deep and fast), which are necessary for rest and recovery. “It is important to set the time when you need to Wake up, and constantly get up at this time. Then, taking into account the cycles, count the time when you need to go to bed. 7 and a half hours of sleep, that is 5 cycles, is optimal for an adult. If you have to get up at 06: 30, it is right to go to bed at 11 PM. If you do not get to lie down at 11, it is best to wait until the next cycle (00:30). It’s always better to Wake up at the end of a cycle than in the middle. You can’t go through all the stages in a shorter time,” Littlehales says.

This implies a third point: an ordinary person can be missing and a continuous block of 3-5 sleep cycles, but the athlete who spends a huge amount of energy, requires recharging. That is why Ronaldo sleeps less at night and gets the clock during the day. This usually occurs either 13 to 15 or 17 to 19 according to nick, in these periods most often falling energy levels of the body.

At the same time, Littlehales argues that it is useful for everyone to take a NAP for 30 minutes. With reference to the research of the University of Dusseldorf, he notes that a short sleep improves memory, and NASA adds that this sleep increases the attention of pilots by 34%. “You can take a NAP everywhere-even in a free meeting room in the office, even in a quiet corner of the kitchen, even on a soft Ottoman on the floor. Someone can quickly fall into a dream, someone does not get it, but it is not so important. The main thing is to close your eyes and disconnect from external events. A short pause will refresh your thinking and restart your body. The main thing is to give yourself five minutes to return to the rhythm of work, do not just sit at the computer.”

Some advice and thoughts from Littlehales

1. The temperature in the bedroom should be at 16-18 degrees Celsius, the blanket is better to choose not thick and wool, and light microfiber, as it is sensitive to temperature. Stuffiness threatens the body with dehydration.

2. It is best to sleep in the fetal position:right – Handers should curl up on the left side, left-handers-on the right.

3. The pillow should not be high (low enough one), and wall better do bright.

4. One and a half hours before bedtime is better to abandon the TV, smartphone and bright light. It is ideal to use lighting systems with adjustable power (as an exotic option – to brush your teeth by candlelight). This Is all important so as not to irritate the body with bright light before going to sleep – otherwise there will be no proper balance between sleep and Wake hormones.

5. Sleep time should be calculated by one and a half hour cycles, the full method is higher.

6. Be sure to define your chronotype (roughly – lark, owl or border) – for example, on the site of Littlehales. This will help you choose the right sleep time.

7. During sleep, the body needs complete darkness-without bedside lamps, small lights and so on. This contributes to the proper production of melatonin.

8. I can’t fall asleep right away. What to do to follow the cycles?

Littlehales calls thoughts the most powerful sleep disturbance: regardless of whether a person remembers past events or thinks about the upcoming ones, there is a release of stress hormones (adrenaline, cortisol) that make them worry even more. He offers several ways to deal with this: meditation helps someone, breathing training helps someone, but Nick himself prefers to write out everything that he was concerned about during the day on paper in advance. This helps to avoid unnecessary reflection.

9. It turns out that sleeping together is not quite right

A person is not initially adapted to sleeping with someone. We started to do this only because of emotional connections, but in natural conditions one person would sleep under one tree, and the second – under the next. Therefore, I suggest couples to buy a super King size bed. It’s better to get some sleep.

The most interesting experience we get in a dream. We sleep a third of life. All people see dreams, but the vast majority of them do not remember. In order not to get that in a dream we know about us awake more than in a waking state we know about us sleeping, these three facts are supplemented by other interesting facts in the open article “Interesting facts about sleep” of the project CD.

In ancient times, people attached great importance to dreams. During the military campaigns of the commanders were accompanied by interpreters of dreams. The dream could have been submitted to the Senate.

We no longer believe that high-ranking people are necessarily subscribed to the live broadcast from the events in the web of meanings, people, gods, past and future. But what is something breaks on the side of the wakefulness – fact. A chemically pure sample of such a case is a table of chemical elements, which, strictly speaking, is a dream of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev.

Today we know a lot about sleep and dreams.

Everyone can add an interesting fact about sleep, rank the facts in the article, add them in the comments. 

 

#1 Listening to music before going to sleep is useful

People who listen to music before going to sleep, fall asleep faster, sleep longer, rarely Wake up at night. Music affects the parasympathetic nervous system and relaxes the muscles.

The regularity of falling asleep to the music enhances its relaxing effect, developing a habit. The body begins to perceive relaxing music as a conditioned reflex for sleep.

It is better not to listen to fast music with a rhythm of 60 to 80 beats per minute.

#2 the Phase of bodily paralysis during sleep

There is the phase of dreams, which is called the phase of rapid eye movements, REM. It is at this time that we see images that we remember as a dream. The phase of rapid eye movements takes 20-25 % of the time of night rest, that is 90-120 minutes. During BDG in the brain turns on a special mechanism that paralyzes the body. This helps to prevent unnecessary movements and possible injuries during sleep. When the phase of rapid eye movements ends, we can again move in a dream-turn from side to side, etc.

#3 Everybody dreams

Dreams are seen by everyone who does not have extreme mental disorders. If a person is sure that he does not dream, it means that he forgets his dreams immediately after awakening. Deftly using a long-term skill, displaces them from consciousness as something irrational, uncontrollable, and therefore unnecessary.

 

# 4 orgasm In dream

In dreams, you can not only have sex and get pleasure from it, as in real life, but also to experience a violent orgasm without accompanying physiological processes. Sensations from sex in dream can be stronger, than in real life.

 

 

#5 the Symbolism of dreams

We very rarely see in a dream a familiar everyday things and situations. Even when we dream something, it would seem, familiar, in a dream, this object of the dream takes on a completely different meaning.

Dreams are deeply symbolic, in a dream we find ourselves in the space of primary archetypes. Dreams can be an important marker of our relationship with reality.

 

 

#6 Blind people and dreams

People who once had vision but are blinded can dream about spatial and color images. Born blind pictures do not see, but their dreams are very vivid impressions associated with sound, smell, touch and emotions.

 

 

 

#7 We dream of people we know

The mind can’t come up with a new character that we wouldn’t meet in our lives. We only dream of friends. But I can dream about the ones we don’t remember or forgot. Throughout our life we meet a huge number of people, hundreds of thousands of faces pass in front of our eyes.the part of consciousness that is in charge of dreams has no shortage of material for building a variety of symbols and images.

 

 

 

#8 Color and black and white dreams

Research from 1915 to the fifties of the 20th century showed that 12% of people see exclusively black and white dreams. The picture has changed since the 60s. Today, 4.4% of people see black and white dreams. Most likely, such changes are due to the fact that black-and-white films have given way to color films, television and other media using color images have appeared.
 
 

#9 You should Study before going to bed

In a dream in the hippocampus-memory center-fixed recently acquired neural connections. During the slow sleep is the reactivation of experiences and their transition into long-term memory. During REM sleep, the memories are stabilized.

Fresh memories are better. If you study before going to bed, the material will be remembered for a long time.

#10 at Night we often Wake up

Every night we Wake up to 15 times. This happens when we move from one stage of sleep to another. Moments of awakening are so short that we do not realize and do not remember.

Sleep is so natural that few people think about how important it is assigned to it. Moreover, because of the constant acceleration of the rhythm of life and the resulting lack of time, people think more about how to do everything than about a healthy dream. But is this correct? Is time spent on sleep so useless? To deal with these issues, it is necessary to understand the nature of sleep and its role in our lives.

How did the science of dream develop?

Despite the fact that the science of sleep has developed only closer to the XIX, XX centuries, sleep and dreams have interested people since ancient times. At the same time, sleep was always considered something mystical, connected with the other world. In many ancient cultures, people believed that a sleeping person is in a special state, which is an intermediate between life and death:

… the dream, apparently, belongs by its nature to such states as, for example, the boundary between life and not life, and the sleeper neither exists nor exists, for the state of wakefulness is inherent in life mainly due to sensation. Aristotle.

Until now, folk traditions have come down, according to which, when a person falls asleep, the soul leaves the body and wanders around the world. Then they believed that if you change the appearance of a person (paint his face with paint, etc.), then the soul does not recognize the body and the person will not wake up.

This understanding of sleep prevailed until the XIX century, until the magic ideas were replaced by chemical and physiological theories, which, in turn, did not achieve significant results. Among these theories are the idea of ​​P. Cabanis and I. Muller about the connection between sleep and blood stagnation in the brain or the idea of ​​C. Bernard, A. Mosso and I. R. Tarkhanov on the relationship between sleep and anemia.

And yet, during this period of the development of the science of sleep, there is an achievement to be mentioned. Essential results in their work were achieved by the Russian woman doctor MM. Manasein. Her research, published in German and French magazines in the 1880s and 1890s, produced real resonance in the European scientific community. In her experiments, she was able to trace in detail and describe the physiological changes that occur in the body with prolonged absence of sleep. It turned out that if you do not sleep for a long time, then the immune system starts to collapse, as a result of which the body gradually dies.

But in spite of what successes MM achieved. Manassein and other scientists of this period, to doubt as a dream science, were still treated with distrust and skepticism. The reason for this lay in the absence of the possibility to reliably confirm or disprove many of the theories put forward. Sleep was studied only on the basis of its external signs, such as the person’s posture, the rhythm of breathing, the pulse rate, body temperature, etc. It was impossible to determine the depth of sleep without awakening a person.

The turning point for somnology was 1928. This year the German psychiatrist G. Berger invented electroencephalography. Now somnology has a method that allows you to objectively study sleep. The results were not long in coming: in 1939, A.L. Loomis, E.N. Harvey and GA Hobart proposed the first classification of sleep stages.

Sleep

Sleep is a natural physiological process, during which a person is in a state characterized by a minimum level of brain activity and a reduced response to the world around him.

This process is cyclical. On average, diurnal sleep includes 4 to 6 cycles. In the course of one cycle, successively changing one another, the first phase begins, beginning with a drowsiness that turns into a deep sleep, and ending with the second phase, which we call a paradoxical (fast) sleep. Slow sleep is also called orthodox or non-REM-sleep. It is this phase that comes first and it accounts for about 75% of sleep. It should be mentioned that this phase prevails at the beginning of sleep, whereas before the awakening, the duration of fast sleep increases.

A fast (paradoxical) dream has a pronounced active nature. This manifests itself in rapid eye movements, rapid breathing and brain activity, which spends energy in almost the same way as in a waking state. But despite the fact that brain cells are highly active, information from both the sense organs to the brain and from the brain to the organs does not come. This strange situation, when the brain is boiling activity, but does not go beyond it and has led to the fact that this phase of sleep was called paradoxical. In addition, she suggests that in the phase of fast sleep problems of a different nature are solved, namely, in this phase the information received during the previous period of wakefulness is processed.

Sleep less, work more?

On average, sleep takes 5 to 9 hours a day. “But there is so little time?” You will say. And these words make sense. It is not difficult to imagine how much everything could have been done, if it was not necessary to go to bed. Is it because Winston Churchill slept 5 hours a day, Benjamin Franklin – 4, and Julius Caesar and did not sleep more than 3 hours a day?

Therefore, it is not surprising that the less you sleep, the more time you have left for life. And really, we need to have time to go to work, attend lectures and various seminars, in addition, meet with friends or spend time hobbies. How can I manage to do all this when there are only 24 hours in a day?

The Japanese found their solution.

居 眠 り. This is an interesting phenomenon, which is widespread in Japan. The essence of it is that a person makes up for lack of sleep in public transport, at work and even in a supermarket, in general – in any public place. This behavior not only does not cause condemnation, but moreover, is approved and encouraged by the Japanese, since it is believed that a person who has fallen asleep in a public place, sleeps little at home and works a lot.

This practice is of interest, but the question arises as to whether such intermittent sleep is harmful to the body?

Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Kovalson Vladimir Matveevich is sure that sleep should fit into one and a half hour cycles, which is difficult to do if you sleep no more than half an hour on the go. Moreover, the well-known scientist believes that lack of sleep leads to a decrease in working capacity and increased irritability, and for a longer period, lack of sleep can even lead to serious health problems.

Thus, no matter what demands the modern world presents to a person, one should not neglect sleep and even more so refuse it.

Alternative ways of sleep

Despite the fact that you can not deny yourself a dream, there is an alternative that has become widely known in our time.

It consists that people try to change a mode of a dream so that to reduce the total amount of time necessary for a dream.

This approach is not meaningless. The main thing that you need to do is observe the cycles of sleep, do not interrupt them. He believes that the ideal situation is when a person wakes up at the end of a cycle, and not in the middle, which often happens when an alarm clock rings.

There are various variants of the altered sleep regime, for example, the so-called “polyphasic” sleep. People who practice this regime, instead of a long 8-hour sleep, sleep several times during the day. As a result, they can reduce the total sleep time to 4.5 hours per day.

Adherents of this regime explain the possibility of reducing the duration of sleep as follows. They are sure that a person does not particularly need a phase of slow sleep, whose task is to go to the fast sleep phase. Thus, they believe that if you go to the fast sleep phase as soon as possible, reducing the phase of slow sleep, this will cause the sleep time to decrease, and on restoring the body’s strength it will not affect and the person will have time to recover and feel rested .

There are people who practice alternative sleep regimes quite a long time.

Thus, this direction is really very attractive. Now, when time is called the most valuable resource, the need to increase the hours of activity makes people look for an opportunity to reduce the time that goes into sleep. How much is a good idea, now difficult to say. People who have long practiced alternative sleep patterns are quite satisfied with the results. They believe that it does not affect health and well-being. But we need to understand, however, that such a drastic change in the habitual sleep regime has not been investigated, and therefore the consequences of a regime change in the long-term period can not be accurately predicted. And just as a prolonged lack of sleep leads to the possibility of serious illness, and experiments with the duration and amount of sleep can subsequently lead to unfavorable results.

Learning while sleeping: myth or reality?

“Well,” you will say, “you can not neglect sleep, an attempt to cut it can cause negative consequences, but what if we sleep, but at this time we will learn?”

Studies have shown that training is possible at the stage of relaxed wakefulness and easy drowsiness. But it’s worth moving into a deeper phase of sleep, as the perception of the material is disrupted, and then completely stops. Thus, constantly supporting a person in a state of easy slumber will not solve the problem, since a person needs a full-fledged sleep, and training during normal sleep is impossible due to a constant phase change.

As a result, it becomes clear that you will not be able to learn during sleep. Perhaps this is one of the reasons why even recognizing the importance of sleep for life, many believe that having the opportunity to get rid of it, a person will be able to obtain the necessary additional time, which he will spend with greater benefit.

But this is a fundamentally wrong opinion. The truth is that even during sleep the brain “does not turn off”, but continues to work. He analyzes and evaluates all the information received for the day, sorts it and forms a playback mechanism, thereby creating what we call memories.

Trying to give up sleep or shorten the time spent on it, we simply deprive the brain of the ability to calmly comprehend and “digest” all the volume of information, emotions and emotions received and accumulated for the whole day.

Summarizing

In the modern world, the prevailing view is that many sleep only lazy, while successful people sleep a little. It’s a delusion. Normal sleep is no less important than proper nutrition or sport. As long as we sleep, our brain does not stop working, it processes and puts on the shelves all the information received for the day, which will subsequently form our system of views and values, and will be used by us to achieve our goals.